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  • #11192 Report Abuse

    Hi, I have a two year old Weimaraner and he has had puppy shots and a one year booster. Lately I have been researching the necessity of vaccines as well as the dangers. Do any of you not vaccinate, or maybe just not vaccinate yearly?

    #11195 Report Abuse

    Everyone will have an opinion on this topic, and many answers will be as different as night and day, lol. I personally do the puppy series, the one year booster, and then every 3 yrs OR as I deem necessary based on potential exposure. If I have a lot of rescues/strange dogs coming and going, I will booster more frequently. Once they hit 10, I stop vaccinating for everything but rabies(again, assuming a history of vaccines. I give bordetella “as needed”, no longer do lyme(had dogs with reactions) and since we do not have a huge lepto exposure, I do not use a distemper/parvo combo that includes it. I do give Interceptor monthly(right now heartgard due to the shutdown of production) and I use Frontline as needed.

    #11196 Report Abuse

    Melissa, thanks for your information. I have just begun digging into the confusing topic of vaccinating. I have heard of many people not vaccinating at all. I think I will keep researching, but I have read that many vaccines last a lot longer than advertised, and sometimes for the full life of the pet.

    #11202 Report Abuse
    Hound Dog Mom

    Hi Weimlove –

    I agree with Melissa – vaccines are a very controversial subject. I personally do a puppy series, a booster 1 year after their last puppy booster, then I don’t vaccinate again other than rabies every 3 years to comply with law. I don’t ever vaccinate for lyme, lepto or bordatella. I’d recommend checking out the book “Shock to the System” by Catherine O’Driscoll.

    #11205 Report Abuse

    Hdm, yes I agree that it is definitely a touchy subject! Since I have already gotten his one year boosters, I think I will plan on only getting the rabies every three years to comply with law as well, although I am still a bit skeptical about the necessity of getting the rabies vaccine every three years. Thanks so much, I just found this forum and it is really nice to be able to discuss things like this

    #11207 Report Abuse

    Hi weimlove ~~ I’m with HDM on this one 🙂 And you are right about rabies too..

    The American Animal Hospital Association put out a canine vaccination recommendation in 2006 (there is a later one as well but the 2006 is easier to read imo). In the 2006 guidelines they CLEARLY state that it is KNOWN that the core vaccines (minus rabies) last longer than 1 year AND 3 years. The recommendation is to give (distemper, parvo and adeno) “every 3 years or longer”. Note the “or longer”. In the “Comments and Recommendations” section of the chart starting on page 4 they give the efficacy data for the individual core vaccines — they are 5 to 7 years. It is said that testing was only done that long and efficacy is like for life just like vaccines in humans. /forums/topic/vaccinating/#post-11205

    When you do your research google Dr. Ronald Schultz. Dr. Schultz is an immunologist and pathobiologist at the Univerisity of Wisconsin and the leading expert on pet vaccines in the US and one of only a few in the world. Dr. Schultz and Dr. Jean Dodds DVM are currently under way with The Rabies Challenge Fund to prove the rabies vaccine lasts at least 7 years. On the website they discuss some of the damage known to be caused by vaccines (heinz body anemia, kidney disease etc etc). http://www.rabieschallengefund.org/

    And if you have the time, Dr. Karen Becker DVM did a four part interview series with Dr. Ronald Schultz that is VERY enlightening (Dr. Schultz titers his own puppies to show when the mom’s immunity is gone and then gives the shots one at a time). He titers from then on (they don’t get any boosters). Here’s the link to the 1st of the 4 part video interview (each about 12 minutes long). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xC–bGthNN8

    Good luck and best of health to your pup!!!

    #11208 Report Abuse

    I posted with some links for you to check out weimlove — data from expert Dr. Ronald Schultz (immunologist and pathobiologist at the University of Wisconsin) in the field of pet immunology. The post did not appear. I’m guessing it is being held due to the links.. If it doesn’t post — google AAHA 2006 Vaccine Guideline (American Animal Hospital Association) and check out the chart on page 4. They clearly state that the core vaccines (except rabies) are known to last 5 to 7 years… Also google “The Rabies Challenge Fund” and “Dr. Karen Becker interviews Dr. Ronald Schultz” (this is a four part video series. Hopefully my post will show up here but if not this is some places to start with expert opinions on the matter.

    #11213 Report Abuse

    Thanks so much for posting those sites. They were all very informative, and I have learned alot from them. After reviewing all of this information, I believe I can almost be sure that since Shadow (my weim) has had all of his puppy shots, and one year booster, that he will be protected for the rest if his life. I also think that once I start feeding him raw, that is will build up his immune system even more.

    #11225 Report Abuse

    Glad the recommended sites were helpful 🙂 The dog in my avatar (my Audrey) was born with kidney disease. She started showing symptoms as early as 6 weeks old and was officially diagnosed at her 1 year blood work. Audrey received only her first set of puppy shots (at the breeders before coming to me) and has never been vaccinated for rabies (she is exempt for life due to her disease). I truly believe in minimal vaccination, minimal toxic exposure (heartworm, flea/tick, yard chemicals, fluoridated water etc), species appropriate diets etc. Audrey is living proof. She is now 6 and 1/2 years old and still in excellent health (still has kidney disease but she’s not sick). She’s been raw fed since she was weaned. I used to home make her diet but life got busy and I don’t have the time to do it properly right now so I feed commercial raw.. I foster too and from this Audrey has been exposed to giardia, coccidia, ringworm, kennel cough etc. If she does get ill from these it is always short lived and she to date has not required medical intervention for anything… She’s VERY healthy despite having kidney disease. Imagine how healthy an already healthy dog can be with the right food and limited toxic exposures..? 🙂

    #11226 Report Abuse

    Hi Weimlove,
    I’m in the don’t vaccinate catagory. My 16 yr old Pom, Sonya, is toxically injured from pesticide poisoning, like me. She used to get dis/parv every 3 years, before I knew better, & Rabies every 5. My 2 year old standard poodle, & service dog, Rosie, had one set of distemper/parvo at the breeders, the day before I got her. 4 days later she nearly died. When it was time or the next booster, I asked the vet to titer instead. She came back “protected for life.” They other thing we discovered, the toxins from her vaccines come out of her body and make me sick. Since the most toxic vac necessary in our area is the Rabies, I got a medical exemption for her, and for me. So we don’t do any. I also use natural substances for parasites & pests, no pesticides! I feed organic Raw, & Brother’s Complete, with supplements like probiotics, enzymes, astaxanthin, & detox caps, as needed. We have a non-toxic, fragrance free environment.

    I support the rabies challenge fund.

    #11227 Report Abuse

    Toxed2loss, I’m so sorry to hear that! After my Weimaraner received his booster shots, he broke out in small raised bumps all over his back and neck. After taking two rounds of anti biotics we went to a different vet for a second opinion. He was diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. I think this could have been caused by the vaccines. Thankfully after using herbal shampoos and adding extra fish oil to his food, the bumps went away and have been gone for almost a year now. I would love to not vaccinate anymore, but I am nervous about the risks. Since he has had his puppy shots and boosters do you think he is good for life?

    #11228 Report Abuse
    Mike P

    After recieving much info on the vac subject from Toxed and Shawna here on DFA I choose not to vaccinate for dis/parv ever again. Looking over my Boxers record we discovered she had 2 dis/parv vacs 6 months apart.One the day we rescued her 2 years ago and one our vet gave her 6 months later after a routine vet visit.I brought that to his attention and he said no worries!! I have been working very hard to maintain and boost her immune system with a few supps and good nutrition.I asked my own Dr about dog vacs and he reassured me that they are not needed after the first set of boosters at one year of age.He said a healthy immune system has memory and will attack if they are exposed to any danger much like us from our baby shots.Good enough for me.I like you had some apprehension about this subject because I was used to the norm of yearly’s. That’s just how it used to be done but not anymore.Look up Dr Schultz and Dr Jean Dodds work and also the AAHA recommendations for vaccinations.Good stuff…

    #11229 Report Abuse

    Hi Weimlove,
    I do think he’s good for life. But its what you think that matters. 🙂 So here’s an excerpt from a post I made to Shawna, some time ago, talking about adjuvants. Adjuvants are the toxins they add to vaccines to stimulate the immune system into freaking out and attacking the viruses like its life or death, rather than a natural reaction, from a natural encounter with the virus, which in most cases, you wouldn’t even notice your dog was sick. The problem being, the adjuvants are poisons. It’s these poisons that cause the adverse vaccine reactions. I’ve included an example of vaccine induced hives. The more you know about vaccines and how they work, the more comfortably you can make a decision. After all, there’s still a risk, either way. Dogs (some) do die of vaccine reactions. Vaccinated dogs (some) can still get the viruses they were vaccinated for, and some unvaccinated dogs do get the viruses. You have to decide which risk is greater.

    “vaccines are a significant and very real vector for impaired health in our pets. Here’s a couple of excerpts… Note the first one is on humans but multiple resources stated that adjuvants for humans are safer than for livestock… These examples are just a peek…

    >>>> Is it mere coincidence that rates of autism increased when the Center for Disease Control inserted additions to the recommended vaccination program for infants in 1988? In the 1980s, autism rates were estimated at only six in 10,000 children. Today one in 150 children is autistic, though in some areas autism affects closer to one in 50 children. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has acknowledged that thimerosal can be a neurotoxin (knowing very well that mercury is a neurotoxin), and in 2004 stated that thimerosal-containing vaccines were associated with autism.
    – Timeless Secrets of Health & Rejuvenation: Unleash The Natural Healing Power That Lies Dormant Within You by Andreas Moritz

    Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/027178_autism_vaccines.html#ixzz212cJmlYT”

    Adjuvants! Toxic adjuvants are a major contributor to neurodegenerative diseases. Autism IS a neurodegenerative disease!!! Vaccines are one cause of autism… There are numerous other neurotoxins that cause autism as well. But this is a dog related site so firstI’ll give you the facts about adjuvants, then I’ll bring it back to vaccines in pets…

    “A Glimpse into the Scary World of Vaccine Adjuvants
    By Edda West – Published in VRAN Newsletter – Winter 2005

    Adjuvants are formulated compounds, which when combined with vaccine antigens intensify the body’s immune response. They are used to elicit an early, high and long-lasting immune response. “The chemical nature of adjuvants, their mode of action and their reactions (side effect) are highly variable in terms of how they affect the immune system and how serious their adverse effects are due to the resultant hyperactivation of the immune system. While adjuvants enable the use of less *antigen to achieve the desired immune response and reduce vaccine production costs, with few exceptions, adjuvants are foreign to the body and cause adverse reactions”, writes Australian scientist Viera Scheibner Ph.D, (1)

    The most common adjuvant for human use is an aluminum salt called alum derived from aluminum hydroxide, or aluminum phosphate. A quick read of the scientific literature reveals that the neurotoxic effects of aluminum were recognized 100 years ago. Aluminum is a neurotoxicant and has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders. Prior to 1980, kidney patients undergoing long term dialysis treatments often suffered dialysis encephalopathy syndrome, the result of acute intoxication by the use of an aluminium-containing dialysate. This is now avoided using modern techniques of water purification. In preterm infants, prolonged intravenous feeding with solutions containing aluminum is associated with impaired neurologic development. Scientists speculate that aluminum neurotoxicity may be related to cell damage via free radical production, impairment of glucose metabolism, and effects on nerve signal transduction. (2) Vaccines which contain both aluminum adjuvants and mercury based preservative, greatly magnify the neurotoxic effects. (3)…” http://www.vaclib.org/basic/adjuvants.htm

    Immunology and Cell Biology (2004) 82, 488–496 Special Feature Vaccine adjuvants: Current state and future trends NIKOLAI PETROVSKY1 and JULIO CÉSAR AGUILAR2 1 Autoimmunity Research Unit, ANU Medical School, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2061, Australia and Vaccines Division, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Ave. 31 e 158 y 190, Cubanacán, Apdo 6162, Ciudad, Habana, Cuba 2 Summary

    “… In addition, alum has the potential to cause severe local and systemic side-effects including sterile abscesses, eosinophilia and myofascitis, although fortunately most of the more serious side-effects are relatively rare. There is also community concern regarding the possible role of aluminium in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. ..

    …Adverse reactions to adjuvants can be classified as local or systemic. Important local reactions include pain, local inflammation, swelling, injection site necrosis, lymphadenopathy, granulomas, ulcers and the gen- eration of sterile abscesses. Systemic reactions include nausea, fever, adjuvant arthritis, uveitis, eosinophilia, allergy, anaphylaxis, organ specific toxicity and immunotoxicity (i.e. the liberation of cytokines, immunosuppression or auto- immune diseases).22,23 Unfortunately, potent adjuvant action is often correlated with increased toxicity, as exemplified by the case of FCA which although potent is too toxic for human use…

    …Adjuvant regulatory requirements Regulations for the human use of adjuvants are far more rigorous than those applied to veterinary vaccines..

    …Quil A has been used successfully for veterinary applications. 44 It is a natural product composed of more than 23 different saponins and is generally considered too toxic for human use…”

    Quil A is just one example of the more toxic adjuvants used. I choose this quote because it comes out and states it directly, leaving no room for misconstruing.
    And I came across this. Maybe when people post about their pets dermitis and paw licking (etc.) the first question should be about their vaccination schedule?

    “When a perfectly healthy individual is given viruses that cause illness, the animal is going to manifest illness-related symptoms. This healthy individual is asked to maintain a low-level stimulation of a state of distemper, a low level state of parvo, a low level state of rabies, and so on. As long as you are in a low level state of illness you are not in a high level state of health. Therefore, the vaccines provide protection by keeping the body in a diseased state of health. Often the animal will not manifest the illness it is vaccinated for, at least not in its acute form, but it will manifest in other conditions. Usually these conditions are inherited weaknesses.
    Chronic symptoms look very much like the acute illnesses but they are often not life-threatening unless allowed to continue for years and years.

    For distemper we often see:

    Watery fluid dripping from the nose
    Conjunctivitis, eye discharge, entropion
    Chronic gastritis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, appetite disorders
    Recurrent diarrhea
    Sensitivity to food with resultant diarrhea
    Epilepsy, rear leg paralysis, spondylitis
    Lip fold dermatitis
    Excessive licking of feet, eruptions between the toes, allergies
    Kennel cough, chronic bronchitis
    Chronic skin eruptions, especially lower half of body
    Failure to thrive, abnormally thin

    For rabies we often see:

    Restless nature, suspicion of others, aggression to animals and people
    Changes in behavior: aloofness, unaffectionate, desire to roam, OR clingy, separation anxiety, ‘velcro dog’
    Restraining can lead to violent behavior and self-injury
    Self-mutilation, tail chewing
    Voice changes, hoarseness, excessive barking
    Chronic poor appetite, very finicky
    Paralysis of throat or tongue, sloppy eaters, drooling
    Dry eye, loss of sight, cataract
    Eating wood, stones, earth, stool
    Destructive behavior, shredding bedding
    Seizures, epilepsy, twitching
    Increased sexual desire, sexual aggression
    Irregular pulse, heart failure
    Reverse sneezing

    Some of the illnesses you are familiar with include any auto-immune disease such as lupus, red cell aplasia, auto-immune hemolytic anemia cardiomyopathies; neoplasias such as fibrosarcomas, mast cell tumors, thyroid tumors, etc.; inflammatory bowel disease, eczematous ears, any dermatological condition, warts, lipomas, poor hair coats, stomatitis, periodontal disease, thyroid disease, and the list goes on and on.

    Now you could be wondering why I am so bold to ‘blame’ all these and more on vaccines. The reason is simple: I have an empirical, call it experimental lab where I visit daily and watch the animals, year after year. In the short years of my career I have seen the incredible increase in all these illnesses, some we never even learned in vet school. In fact, my vet school is now primarily an oncology treatment center! This was not the case a short 20 years ago. I have also spoken with many vets who have practiced longer than I and their response is the same. They did not see the level of chronic illness, nor the resistant and concretized type of illnesses that we see today. ” by: Dee Blanco who is a holistic veterinarian practicing in Santa Fe, New Mexico.


    « Vaccinations | Main | Adverse Reactions »

    Changing Vaccine Procotols – by W Jean Dodds, DVM

    The challenge to produce effective and safe vaccines for the prevalent infectious diseases of humans and animals has become increasingly difficult. In veterinary medicine, evidence implicating vaccines in triggering immune-mediated and other chronic disorders (vaccinosis) is compelling. While some of these problems have been traced to contaminated or poorly attenuated batches of vaccine that revert to virulence, others apparently reflect the host’s genetic predisposition to react adversely upon receiving the single (monovalent) or multiple antigen “combo” (polyvalent) products given routinely to animals. Animals of certain susceptible breeds or families appear to be at increased risk for severe and lingering adverse reactions to vaccines.

    The onset of adverse reactions to conventional vaccinations (or other inciting drugs, chemicals, or infectious agents) can be an immediate hypersensitivity or anaphylactic reaction, or can occur acutely (24-48 hours afterwards), or later on (10-45 days) in a delayed type immune response often caused by immune-complex formation. Typical signs of adverse immune reactions include fever, stiffness, sore joints and abdominal tenderness, susceptibility to infections, central and peripheral nervous system disorders or inflammation, collapse with autoagglutinated red blood cells and jaundice, or generalized pinpoint hemorrhages or bruises. Liver enzymes may be markedly elevated, and liver or kidney failure may accompany bone marrow suppression. Furthermore, recent vaccination of genetically susceptible breeds has been associated with transient seizures in puppies and adult dogs, as well as a variety of autoimmune diseases including those affecting the blood, endocrine organs, joints, skin and mucosa, central nervous system, eyes, muscles, liver, kidneys, and bowel. It is postulated that an underlying genetic predisposition to these conditions places other littermates and close relatives at increased risk. Vaccination of pet and research dogs with polyvalent vaccines containing rabies virus or rabies vaccine alone was recently shown to induce production of antithyroglobulin autoantibodies, a provocative and important finding with implications for the subsequent development of hypothyroidism (Scott-Moncrieff et al, 2002).

    Vaccination also can overwhelm the immunocompromised or even healthy host that is repeatedly challenged with other environmental stimuli and is genetically predisposed to react adversely upon viral exposure. The recently weaned young puppy or kitten entering a new environment is at greater risk here, as its relatively immature immune system can be temporarily or more permanently harmed. Consequences in later life may be the increased susceptibility to chronic debilitating diseases.

    As combination vaccines contain antigens other than those of the clinically important infectious disease agents, some may be unnecessary; and their use may increase the risk of adverse reactions. With the exception of a recently introduced mutivalent Leptospira spp. vaccine, the other leptospirosis vaccines afford little protection against the clinically important fields strains of leptospirosis, and the antibodies they elicit typically last only a few months. Other vaccines, such as for Lyme disease, may not be needed, because the disease is limited to certain geographical areas. Annual revaccination for rabies is required by some states even though there are USDA licensed rabies vaccine with a 3-year duration. Thus, the overall risk-benefit ratio of using certain vaccines or multiple antigen vaccines given simultaneously and repeatedly should be reexamined. It must be recognized, however, that we have the luxury of asking such questions today only because the risk of disease has been effectively reduced by the widespread use of vaccination programs.

    Given this troublesome situation, what are the experts saying about these issues? In 1995, a landmark review commentary focused the attention of the veterinary profession on the advisability of current vaccine practices. Are we overvaccinating companion animals, and if so, what is the appropriate periodicity of booster vaccines ? Discussion of this provocative topic has generally lead to other questions about the duration of immunity conferred by the currently licensed vaccine components.

    In response to questions posed in the first part of this article, veterinary vaccinologists have recommended new protocols for dogs and cats. These include: 1) giving the puppy or kitten vaccine series followed by a booster at one year of age; 2) administering further boosters in a combination vaccine every three years or as split components alternating every other year until; 3) the pet reaches geriatric age, at which time booster vaccination is likely to be unnecessary and may be unadvisable for those with aging or immunologic disorders. In the intervening years between booster vaccinations, and in the case of geriatric pets, circulating humoral immunity can be evaluated by measuring serum vaccine antibody titers as an indication of the presence of immune memory. Titers do not distinguish between immunity generated by vaccination and/or exposure to the disease, although the magnitude of immunity produced just by vaccination is usually lower (see Tables).

    Except where vaccination is required by law, all animals, but especially those dogs or close relatives that previously experienced an adverse reaction to vaccination can have serum antibody titers measured annually instead of revaccination. If adequate titers are found, the animal should not need revaccination until some future date. Rechecking antibody titers can be performed annually, thereafter, or can be offered as an alternative to pet owners who prefer not to follow the conventional practice of annual boosters. Reliable serologic vaccine titering is available from several university and commercial laboratories and the cost is reasonable (Twark and Dodds, 2000; Lappin et al, 2002; Paul et al, 2003; Moore and Glickman, 2004).

    * Veterinary Medicine, February, 2002.
    Dodds WJ. More bumps on the vaccine road. Adv Vet Med 41:715-732, 1999.
    Dodds WJ. Vaccination protocols for dogs predisposed to vaccine reactions. J Am An Hosp Assoc 38: 1-4, 2001.
    Hogenesch H, Azcona-Olivera J, Scott-Moncreiff C, et al. Vaccine-induced autoimmunity in the dog. Adv Vet Med 41: 733-744, 1999.
    Hustead DR, Carpenter T, Sawyer DC, et al. Vaccination issues of concern to practitioners. J Am Vet Med Assoc 214: 1000-1002, 1999.
    Kyle AHM, Squires RA, Davies PR. Serologic status and response to vaccination against canine distemper (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) of dogs vaccinated at different intervals. J Sm An Pract, June 2002.
    Lappin MR, Andrews J, Simpson D, et al. Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, and feline parvovirus infection in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 220: 38-42, 2002.
    McGaw DL, Thompson M, Tate, D, et al. Serum distemper virus and parvovirus antibody titers among dogs brought to a veterinary hospital for revaccination. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213: 72-75, 1998.
    Moore GE, Glickman LT. A perspective on vaccine guidelines and titer tests for dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224: 200-203. 2004.
    Mouzin DE, Lorenzen M J, Haworth, et al. Duration of serologic response to five viral antigens in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224: 55-60, 2004.
    Mouzin DE, Lorenzen M J, Haworth, et al. Duration of serologic response to three viral antigens in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224: 61-66, 2004.
    Paul MA. Credibility in the face of controversy. Am An Hosp Assoc Trends Magazine XIV(2):19-21, 1998.
    Paul MA (chair) et al. Report of the AAHA Canine Vaccine Task Force: 2003 canine vaccine guidelines, recommendations, and supporting literature. AAHA, April 2003, 28 pp.
    Schultz RD. Current and future canine and feline vaccination programs. Vet Med 93:233-254, 1998.
    Schultz RD, Ford RB, Olsen J, Scott F. Titer testing and vaccination: a new look at traditional practices. Vet Med, 97: 1-13, 2002 (insert).
    Scott FW, Geissinger CM. Long-term immunity in cats vaccinated with an inactivated trivalent vaccine. Am J Vet Res 60: 652-658, 1999.
    Scott-Moncrieff JC, Azcona-Olivera J, Glickman NW, et al. Evaluation of antithyroglobulin antibodies after routine vaccination in pet and research dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 221: 515-521, 2002.
    Smith CA. Are we vaccinating too much? J Am Vet Med Assoc 207:421-425, 1995.
    Tizard I, Ni Y. Use of serologic testing to assess immune status of companion animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213: 54-60, 1998.
    Twark L, Dodds WJ. Clinical application of serum parvovirus and distemper virus antibody titers for determining revaccination strategies in healthy dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 217:1021-1024, 2000.
    Posted on September 18, 2006 1:16 AM | Permalink

    Vaccine adjuvants: Current state and future trends NIKOLAI PETROVSKY1 and JULIO CÉSAR AGUILAR2 1 Autoimmunity Research Unit, ANU Medical School, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2061, Australia and Vaccines Division, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Cubanacán, Apdo 6162, Ciudad, Habana, Cuba 2

    The problem with pure recombinant or synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines is that they are generally far less immunogenic than older style live or killed whole organism vaccines. This has created a major need for improved and more powerful adjuvants for use in these vaccines. With few exceptions, alum remains the sole adjuvant approved for human use in the majority of countries worldwide. Although alum is able to induce a good antibody (Th2) response, it has little capacity to stimulate cellular (Th1) immune responses which are so important for protection against many pathogens. In addition, alum has the potential to cause severe local and systemic side-effects including sterile abscesses, eosinophilia and myofascitis, although fortunately most of the more serious side-effects are relatively rare. There is also community concern regarding the possible role of aluminium in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Consequently, there is a major unmet need for safer and more effective adjuvants suitable for human use. In particular, there is demand for safe and non-toxic adjuvants able to stimulate cellular (Th1) immunity. Other needs in light of new vaccine technologies are adjuvants suitable for use with mucosally-delivered vaccines, DNA vaccines, cancer and autoimmunity vaccines. Each of these areas are highly specialized with their own unique needs in respect of suitable adjuvant technology. This paper reviews the state of the art in the adjuvant field, explores future directions of adjuvant development and finally examines some of the impediments and barriers to development and registration of new human adjuvants.

    Vaccination Reactions: How to Handle an Anaphylactic Reaction due to a Vaccine
    Posted on: March 7, 2011
    Vaccine reactions! They are such a scary event. In fact, vaccination induced reactions creates anxiety not only for the pet owner, but the patient and veterinarian too.

    This page displays one example of a dog with a vaccine reaction to a rabies vaccine, manufactured by a reputable and professional veterinary pharmaceutical company and administered subcutaneously as recommended. Twelve months prior to the rabies vaccine given in this example, the dog (a three-year-old Dachshund) was vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine containing Distemper, Hepatitis, Parainfluenza, Corona and Parvo virus antigens. A mild reaction occurred to that vaccine administration. It is unknown to which fraction of that vaccine the dog reacted.

    Prior to this incident, the owners were fully informed about potential vaccine reactions and what to do if another one occurred. They requested a rabies vaccine only (they decided against giving further multivalent vaccinations) in order to conform to local ordinances and to ensure against possible infection from rabies due to the abundant wildlife present in the dog’s environment. The vaccine was administered after a discussion of potential good and undesirable effects of a vaccine.

    Two hours after the Rabies vaccine was administered the dog was readmitted for itching and head-shaking, and the presence of “hives” on the dog’s face and head. These eruptions on the skin, called a urticarial reaction, are rounded swollen raised areas of skin tissue that have responded locally to the administration of a substance to which the dog is allergic.

    Hives are caused when the body releases histamine from a cell called a mast cell. The histamine then causes leaking of fluid into the surrounding body tissues from the small blood vessels and stimulates the nearby nerve endings producing the itching sensation. The dog was breathing normally but was uncomfortable. Fortunately the vast majority of vaccine reactions in the dog are similar to this case where the targeted tissue is the skin.

    Though rare, the tracheal, laryngeal and bronchial tissues can swell, causing a constricted, spastic airway and breathing difficulties — all of which can have life-threatening consequences.

    Rabies Challenge Fund

    Why Challenge Current Rabies Vaccine Policy?

    Rabies vaccination is required by law in nearly all areas. Even though protection from rabies is documented to last at least three years, current law in some states or areas still requires that boosters be given annually or biannually rather than the standard policy of every three years. However, vaccination against rabies virus is occasionally associated with debilitating adverse effects. According to the CDC domestic animals account for less than 10% of the reported rabies cases, with cats, cattle, and dogs most often reported rabid. Scientific data indicate that vaccinating dogs against rabies every three years, as most states require, is unnecessary.
    Studies have shown the duration of protective immunity as measured by serum antibody titers against rabies virus to persist for seven years post-vaccination. By validating the ‘true’ life of rabies virus immunity and moving to five and hopefully seven years, we will decrease the risk of adverse reactions in our animals and minimize their repeated exposure to foreign substances. Killed vaccines like those for rabies virus can trigger both immediate and delayed adverse vaccine reactions (termed “vaccinosis”). While there may be immediate hypersensitivity reactions, other acute events tend to occur 24-72 hours afterwards, or up to 45 days later in the case of delayed reactions.
    Reactions that have been documented include:
    Behavior changes such as aggression and separation anxiety
    Obsessive behavior,self-mutilation, tail chewing
    Pica – eating wood, stones, earth, stool
    Destructive behavior, shredding bedding
    Seizures, epilepsy
    Fibrosarcomas at injection site
    Autoimmune diseases such as those affecting bone marrow and blood cells, joints, eyes, skin, kidney, liver, bowel and central nervous system
    Muscular weakness and or atrophy
    Chronic digestive problems

    Rabies Exemptions and Waivers
    Rabies Vaccination is required by law. In some instances, it is possible to secure a written waiver for exemption from rabies booster vaccination. A letter justifying the medical reason for such exemption needs to be obtained from your primary care veterinarian. When seeking a waiver, a rabies serum antibody titer should be performed. Adequate serum rabies titers are at least 1:5 by the RFFIT method. Waiver requests are not generally accepted based on serum antibody titers alone, but may be granted on a case-by-case basis with justification. Waivers are not granted as a matter of personal preference, and localities often do not permit waivers and exemptions regardless of the justification.”

    I have more if you need it… (I tend to overwhelm people with data. GFETE (Grinning From Ear To Ear)

    #11230 Report Abuse
    Mike P

    Toxi great post as usual.I have to read it several times to digest it more as I don’t retain things well.You are such a hard worker and I appreciate your every word…

    #11234 Report Abuse

    Wow! That was alot of information, but once i read it a few times and let it sink in, it was very useful and helpful. My dog received his one year booster last May, and I am about to transition him to a raw diet so that will definintly build up his immune system. I am also definintly going to consider titer testing, as I think that would be a great alternative to unnecessary vaccines. Thanks so much for posting all of the great information.

    #11235 Report Abuse

    Mike P,
    That is great to know! Thanks for the reassurance! Vaccinating is such a tricky and controversal subject.

    #11242 Report Abuse

    Mike P,

    “I have to read it over several times to retain it…” Me too! GFETE

    And, Thank you! and your very welcome!!!

    #11243 Report Abuse

    You’re very welcome, too!

    #11358 Report Abuse

    I was a “late bloomer” in researching vaccinations. My older dog, who will be 7 next month, got titered for the first time 3.5yrs ago. The holistic vet has opted to NOT re-titer him, saying his levels are just fine.
    My younger girl is 2.5yrs old. She came to me at almost 5mos of age…..she had had two or three sets of puppy shots by then. That was all she got, she was titered the first time a little over a year ago. She just went to the vets last week and like my older one, she opted to NOT re-titer him.
    There is a chance that we may be getting a third dog, a puppy. I will have to call the vet to ask when she wants to do the first titers.
    My dogs get rabies every 3yrs, which is law here.

    #11360 Report Abuse

    How much is titering where you’re at?

    #11391 Report Abuse

    Wow! That is great to know! I have also just begun looking into the necessity of vaccines. My weimaraner is two. He had all the puppy shots and a one year booster. In your opinion, do you think he may be protected for life?

    #11392 Report Abuse

    Weimlove: I actually do believe he is protected for life. The only time I’d say no is if a pup came from a backyard breeder or puppy mill. If you have your dog titered, you’ll know if he’s protected or not.

    #11402 Report Abuse

    Marie- I will definitely discuss titering with my vet. That sounds like a great option!

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