Best Large Breed Puppy Foods

Best Large Breed Puppy Puppy Food

Choosing the best food for your large breed puppy is one of the most important decisions you’ll ever make.

That’s because choosing the wrong puppy food… one that contains too much calcium for your dog… could cause permanent bone and joint damage.

Including a crippling form of hip dysplasia.1 2

Especially for larger breeds.

Which is why it’s SO important for you to choose a food that’s specially designed to be SAFE for large breed puppies.

The Best Large Breed Puppy Foods
October 2019

Here are The Dog Food Advisor’s top 15 best large breed puppy foods for October 2019.



Wellness Grain Inclusive

Wellness Complete Health Large Breed Puppy Food

Rating:

Complete Health Large Breed Puppy is one of 14 dry recipes included in our review of the Wellness Complete Health product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Deboned chicken, chicken meal, peas, ground brown rice, salmon meal
  • Type: Grain-inclusive (brown rice, oatmeal, barley, oats)
  • Profile: Growth
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds
  • Price: $$

Complete Health Large Breed Puppy derives the bulk of its animal protein from fresh chicken as well as chicken meal and salmon meal. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 32% protein, 14% fat and 45% estimated carbs… with a fat-to-protein ratio of about 44%.

Actual buyer review… “I wanted to move my St. Bernard puppy to something a little more high end than the Purina Pro Plan the breeder had been feeding him. I chose this brand of large breed puppy food based on the reviews, price (which seems very good for the ingredients and quality, more reasonable than other similar foods), and I liked that it has taurine listed (my vet mentioned recent studies have shown it is needed for heart health in large breeds). My puppy took to the food right away and had no digestive issues. I was able to switch him over very quickly with mixing in the old food for a pretty short period. And I like the large sized kibble. He seems to eat a bit slower and chew a bit more with this food and he has had nice solid stools since switching. Definitely recommend for giant breed puppies.”

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This Wellness Complete Health growth formula contains just the right balance of calcium and phosphorus… making it an exceptionally safe choice for your large breed puppy. Highly recommended.

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Iams ProActive Smart Puppy Large Breed

Iams ProActive Health Smart Puppy Large Breed

Rating:

Smart Puppy Large Breed is one of 15 dry recipes included in our review of the Iams ProActive Health product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Chicken, ground whole grain corn, chicken by-product meal, ground whole grain sorghum, corn gluten meal
  • Type: Grain-inclusive (whole grain corn, sorghum)
  • Profile: Growth
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds
  • Price: $

Iams ProActive Health Smart Puppy Large Breed sources the majority of its meat protein from fresh chicken. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 30% protein, 16% fat and 46% estimated carbs… which creates a fat-to-protein ratio of about 52%.

Actual buyer review… “I have bulldogs. Notorious for health and skin issues. I switched from another brand to this food and since, their fur has gotten super shiny they are growing better and more importantly the skin issues they had have disappeared. All without a costly trip To the vet. This will now be my go to food for my babies!!”

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With plenty of antioxidants to help build immunity and fish oil to support healthy joints, this affordable recipe makes a solid choice for large breed puppies. Highly recommended.

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Orijen Large Puppy

Orijen Puppy Large

Rating:

This Orijen formula is one of 8 dry recipes included in our review of the Orijen product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Deboned chicken, deboned turkey, yellowtail flounder, whole eggs, whole atlantic mackerel
  • Type: Grain-free
  • Profile: All life stages
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds (also safe for adults)
  • Price: $$$

Orijen Puppy Large gets the dominant portion of its animal protein from deboned poultry and fresh fish. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 43% protein, 18% fat and 30% estimated carbs… creating a fat-to-protein ratio of about 41%.

Actual buyer review… “We have an old English Bulldog who had all kinds of skin issues when we got him. He was a rescue who needed extra love and some help with his skin. We give our other two dogs Orijen Original so we immediately put him on the puppy large breed. Within a week his skin was better, hair was silky, and he has more energy. This is hands down the best dog food.”

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A premium dog food with plenty of animal protein, fresh fruits and vegetables. A healthy choice.

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Diamond Naturals Large Breed Puppy

Diamond Naturals Large Breed Puppy Formula

Rating:

This Large Breed Puppy product is one of 13 dry recipes included in our review of the Diamond Naturals product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Lamb, lamb meal, ground white rice, peas, pea flour
  • Type: Grain-inclusive (white rice, barley)
  • Profile: All life stages
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds (also safe for adults)
  • Price: $

This Diamond Naturals formula gains the greatest share of its meat protein from lamb and lamb meal. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 30% protein, 17% fat and 45% estimated carbs… resulting in a fat-to-protein ratio of about 57%.

Actual buyer review… “I started my puppy on this at about 6 months after having trouble with other foods. I cannot tell you what a difference it has made! She has gone from scarfing down her previous food in one go to grazing. Her stool isn’t runny anymore and she’s going to the bathroom less. And my goodness her coat!!!! It’s so soft and silky now and when the sun hits it it actually looks like gold threads coming through. I’ve never seen her coat look this gorgeous. We will be life long customers of this food!!”

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A great value for your growing large breed puppy. Highly recommended.

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Blue Buffalo Life Protection Large Breed Puppy Food

Blue Buffalo Life Protection Large Breed Puppy Food

Rating:

Life Protection Large Breed Puppy Chicken and Brown Rice is one of 23 dry recipes included in our review of the Blue Buffalo Life Protection product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Deboned chicken, chicken meal, brown rice, oatmeal, barley
  • Type: Grain-inclusive (brown rice, oatmeal, barley
  • Profile: Growth
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds
  • Price: $

This Blue Buffalo Life Protection recipe acquires the lion’s share of its meat protein from chicken and chicken meal. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 29% protein, 17% fat and 46% estimated carbs… which results in a fat-to-protein ratio of about 58%.

Actual buyer review… “I have a 6 month old lab, and at first I had a hard time finding a food that worked for him. The first puppy food I tried made him extremely itchy (almost as if he had an allergy to something in it) and the second gave him consistently loose stools, even after he’d had a month to fully adjust to it. He’s been on this Blue Buffalo kibble for a couple of months now and he’s doing much, much better!”

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A popular brand at a reasonable price. And a great choice for your large or giant breed puppy. Highly recommended.

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Instinct Raw Boost Large Breed Puppy Food

Instinct Raw Boost Large Breed Puppy Recipe

Rating:

Raw Boost Large Breed Puppy is one of 15 dry recipes included in our review of the Instinct Raw Boost product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Chicken, chicken meal, peas, egg product, tapioca
  • Type: Grain-free
  • Profile: Growth
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds
  • Price: $$$

This Instinct Raw Boost formula receives the greatest share of its animal protein from chicken and chicken meal. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 39% protein, 22% fat and 32% estimated carbs… which yields a fat-to-protein ratio of about 57%.

Actual buyer review… “My puppy has been consistently fed this dry food for every single meal (along with various toppers for taste) since he was 3 months old to now (9 months old) and the vet was absolutely impressed with his health. We took a blood test pre-neuter and all levels came back perfect. Not to mention, his stools, coat and energy levels are all consistently healthy!”

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A top-rated, grain-free option which includes freeze-dried raw pieces throughout the kibble. An exceptional high protein selection.

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Purina Pro Plan Focus Large Puppy

Pro Plan Focus Large Breed Puppy Food

Rating:

Focus Large Breed Puppy is one of 14 dry recipes included in our review of the Purina Pro Plan Focus product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Chicken, brewers rice, corn gluten meal, whole grain corn, poultry by-product meal
  • Type: Grain-inclusive (brewers rice, corn gluten meal, corn, wheat)
  • Profile: All life stages
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds (also safe for adults)
  • Price: $

This Purina Pro Plan Focus recipe obtains the major portion of its meat protein from chicken. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 32% protein, 15% fat and 45% estimated carbs… which yields a fat-to-protein ratio of about 47%.

Actual buyer review… “I was using another food brand that was associated with DCM, so I purchased Purina Pro Plan on my vet’s recommendation. My pup loves it and has been doing really well on it. She’s healthy, energetic, has a healthy coat and growing. The puppy food is a great size and texture, so it’s good for puppy while teething. I plan to stick with this brand for a while. Definitely recommend this product!”

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A classic dog food brand popular among breeders and veterinarians. Contains healthy prebiotic fiber to promote digestive health with omega-6 fatty acids for a shiny coat. A time-proven and safe pick for your large breed puppy.

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Chicken Soup Large Breed Puppy

Chicken Soup for the Soul Large Breed Puppy Recipe

Rating:

This Chicken Soup formula is one of 7 dry recipes included in our review of the Chicken Soup for the Soul product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Chicken, turkey, chicken meal, turkey meal, cracked pearled barley
  • Type: Grain-inclusive (barley, brown rice, oatmeal, millet, white rice)
  • Profile: All life stages
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds (also safe for adults)
  • Price: $

Chicken Soup Large Breed Puppy derives the bulk of its animal protein from poultry and poultry meals. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 30% protein, 14% fat and 48% estimated carbs… resulting in a fat-to-protein ratio of about 48%.

Actual buyer review… “This stuff has worked out great so far. The kibble is smaller which makes it easier to digest (my opinion). Also less loose stools and less volume, meaning more efficient. (Feed your dog some cheap food full of fillers and by products and you’ll notice a big difference.) Bonus! The cost a little less, but that’s not why I switched. My boy seems to like it better as well.”

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With the first four ingredients boasting animal protein, this Chicken Soup formula is an impressive option at an affordable price. Highly recommended.

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Eagle Pack Large Breed Puppy Food

Eagle Pack Large and Giant Breed Puppy Food

Rating:

This Eagle Pack product is one of 7 dry recipes included in our review of the Eagle Pack product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Lamb Meal, Oatmeal, Ground Brown Rice, Dehulled Barley, Rice
  • Type: Grain-inclusive (oatmeal, brown rice, barley, rice)
  • Profile: Growth
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds
  • Price: $

Eagle Pack Large Breed Puppy takes the majority of its animal protein from lamb meal. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 26% protein, 13% fat and 53% estimated carbs… which creates a fat-to-protein ratio of about 52%.

Actual buyer review… “My 6 month old Great Dane loves this food! I was feeding him Blue Buffalo large breed puppy and he always had runny stool; we tried probiotics and puréed pumpkin, neither helped. I decided to give this food a try after reading the reviews of other Dane owners, and within a week of mixing just half of this food with his old food, his stool was finally more solid. Now he is fully on this food and his poop is SOLID!!! I have never been so happy to pick up solid poop in my life! Definitely recommend this food for Great Dane puppies with soft stool issues!”

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A reasonably priced dog food containing a moderate amount of protein along with plenty of glucosamine to build healthy joints… ideal for large breed puppies.

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Now Fresh Large Breed Puppy Dog Food

Now Fresh Large Breed Puppy Food

Rating:

This Now Fresh formula is one of 14 dry recipes included in our review of the Now Fresh product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Deboned turkey, whole dried egg, potatoes, peas, potato flour
  • Type: Grain-free
  • Profile: Growth
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds
  • Price: $$

Now Fresh Large Breed Puppy acquires the greatest portion of its meat protein from turkey. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 32% protein, 18% fat and 42% estimated carbs… which creates a fat-to-protein ratio of about 56%.

Actual buyer review… “Our first Doberman came to us on terrible grocery store food and had terrible diarrhea. Turned out he had a super sensitive stomach and it took us a few tries to find the perfect food. NOW firmed up his stool right away and we are feeding it to our new puppy. We wouldn’t choose anything else!”

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With antioxidants from blueberries to help build immunity and added taurine for healthy heart development, this Now Fresh recipe is a solid choice for your growing large breed puppy.

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Hills Large Breed Puppy

Hill’s Science Diet Large Breed Puppy

Rating:

Hill’s Large Breed Puppy is one of 5 dry recipes included in our review of the Hill’s Science Diet product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Chicken meal, whole grain wheat, whole grain oats, whole grain sorghum, corn gluten meal
  • Type: Grain-inclusive (wheat, oats, sorghum, whole grain corn)
  • Profile: Growth
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds
  • Price: $

Hill’s Science Diet Large Breed Puppy derives the dominant portion of its meat protein from chicken meal. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 30% protein, 14% fat and 48% estimated carbs… resulting in a fat-to-protein ratio of about 47%.

Actual buyer review… “We got this brand and variety because our vet prescribed it for our then 6 month old puppy, who was on richer food that ended up chronically upsetting his tummy. Within two days of the switch, his stomach was back to almost completely normal, and now a month in, he has not had any tummy troubles.”

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With fish oil to maintain a shiny coat and folic acid for brain development, this formula is a classic recipe for large breed puppies. Also available in a lamb formula. Easily recommended.

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Carnivora Large

Blue Buffalo Carnivora Large Breed Puppy Food

Rating:

Carnivora Large Breed Puppy is one of 8 dry recipes included in our review of the Blue Buffalo Carnivora product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Deboned chicken, dried chicken, deboned turkey, chicken meal, tapioca starch
  • Type: Grain-free
  • Profile: Growth
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds
  • Price: $$$

This Blue Buffalo Carnivora formula sources the dominant part of its meat protein from chicken. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 44% protein, 19% fat and 29% estimated carbs… yielding a fat-to-protein ratio of about 43%.

Actual buyer review… “I have a Great Dane puppy who is EXTREMELY sensitive and picky!!!!! She is officially eating hard food without any problems and her weight is superb! I highly recommend this for large and giant breeds who have sensitive stomachs and are picky eaters!”

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A new premium product from Blue Buffalo. An impressive formula chock full of 11 different animal protein sources including fresh, raw and dried chicken, turkey, saltwater fish and duck. Highly recommended.

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Eukanuba Large Breed Puppy

Eukanuba Large Breed Puppy

Rating:

This Eukanuba puppy formula is one of 13 dry recipes included in our review of the Eukanuba product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Chicken, chicken by-product meal, corn, wheat, chicken fat
  • Type: Grain-inclusive (wheat, sorghum, brewers rice)
  • Profile: Growth
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds
  • Price: $

Eukanuba Puppy Large Breed gains the principal part of its meat protein from chicken. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 29% protein, 16% fat and 48% estimated carbs… resulting in a fat-to-protein ratio of about 55%.

Actual buyer review… “We, as breeders, have been feeding Eukanuba Large Breed Puppy to our adults and puppies for over 40 years and we still LOVE it. Our puppies are healthy, have good coats, and firm stools. We highly recommend this food. And we find that we can switch most any dog from their other food to this food and they do just fine right away with no stool problems. All of our dogs LOVE this food.”

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A classic puppy product that contains omega DHA for healthy brain development. Readily available and popular among large breed enthusiasts. Highly recommended.

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Nutro Max Puppy

Nutro Max Large Breed Puppy Food

Rating:

Max Large Breed Puppy is one of 8 dry recipes included in our review of the Nutro Max product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Chicken meal, whole grain oatmeal, whole grain sorghum, peas, chicken fat
  • Type: Grain-inclusive (oatmeal, sorghum, brewers rice, brown rice)
  • Profile: Growth
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds
  • Price: $

This Nutro formula derives the majority of its animal protein from chicken meal. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 29% protein, 16% fat and 48% estimated carbs… creating a fat-to-protein ratio of about 54%.

Actual buyer review… “I typically alternate my dogs on Nutro essentials and Nutro Ultra. But feeding a Great Dane/Labrador gets quite pricey. I decided to add the Nutro Max to our feeding schedule and truly was amazed by how much our puppies loved it. Compared to the other two we use, in regard to the nutrient content this is a much more affordable alternative to add to our daily lives without losing out on the crucial vitamins and minerals they need for proper growth.”

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With iron and other chelated minerals for better nutrition and antioxidants to build immunity, Nutro Max makes an outstanding option for your large breed puppy. Highly recommended.

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Royal Canin Large

Royal Canin Large Puppy

Rating:

This Large Puppy product is one of 8 dry recipes included in our review of the Royal Canin product line.

  • First 5 ingredients: Corn, chicken by-product meal, wheat, wheat gluten, chicken fat
  • Type: Grain-inclusive (wheat, wheat gluten, brewers rice, brewers rice flour)
  • Profile: Growth
  • Best for: All puppies including large breeds
  • Price: $

Royal Canin Large Puppy derives the dominant portion of its meat protein from chicken meal. Our dry matter label analysis reveals the recipe contains 31% protein, 16% fat and 45% estimated carbs… with a fat-to-protein ratio of about 52%.

Actual buyer review… “My AKC Breeder suggested continuing Royal Canin dog food in which my chow puppy had been started. So I did…..the breeder was spot on …An excellent vet report and a beautiful AND HEALTHY COAT is confirmation of Royal Canin’s superior formula.”

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A classic vet-designed product containing fish oil for healthy skin and coat as well as higher quality chelated minerals for better nutrition. Highly recommended.

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Why are large breeds more prone to hip dysplasia?

Many dog owners mistakenly believe high levels of protein in the diet can lead to hip dysplasia in large breeds.

Yet contrary to this popular myth

There’s no scientific evidence to link high protein diets to bone and joint disease in large breed dogs.3

Truth is…

Hip disease in large breed dogs is caused by at least one of 3 factors:

  1. Genetics4
  2. Overfeeding5
  3. Too much calcium in the diet6

So, since after birth there’s nothing you can do to change your puppy’s genetics

It’s important to avoid feeding too many calories or too much calcium… factors that can significantly increase your puppy’s risk of hip dysplasia.


How much food should I feed my large breed puppy?

Measuring Cup with Kibble

Determining how much to feed your large breed puppy is NOT a one-time decision.

It’s a process.

You begin with a measured amount of food.

Then… adjust it up or down (as needed)…

To keep your dog at her ideal weight.

Keep in mind…

The amount of food your large breed puppy needs per day depends on how much you expect her to weigh… when she becomes an adult.

The following table7 can help you estimate the total amount of dry food to feed your large breed puppy per day.

Adult
Weight
1.5 – 3
Months
4 – 5
Months
6 – 8
Months
9 – 11
Months
1 – 2
Years
lbscupscupscupscupscups
51-755/8
to
2-1/3
1-1/2
to
4
1-1/2
to
3-3/4
2-1/2
to
4-3/4
2-5/8
to
6-1/4
76-1001
to
2-2/3
2-7/8
to
3-3/4
2-7/8
to
6-1/3
3-7/8
to
7
5-5/8
to
11
100+2-2/3 cups plus 1/3 cup for each 10 lbs of body weight over 100 lbs3-3/4 cups plus 1/3 cup for each 10 lbs of body weight over 100 lbs6-1/3 cups plus 1/3 cup for each 10 lbs of body weight over 100 lbs7 cups plus 1/3 cup for each 10 lbs of body weight over 100 lbs11 cups plus 1/3 cup for each 10 lbs of body weight over 100 lbs

By the way…

You could also start by feeding your puppy the amount of food suggested by the instructions on the package.


How often should I feed my large breed puppy?

Once you’ve determined how much to feed your puppy per day

Simply divide the total daily feeding amount into 3 or 4 smaller servings.

Then…

Feed those smaller portions to your puppy at regular intervals throughout the day.

To make it easy…

Feed your puppy whenever YOU eat… breakfast, lunch and dinner.


When should I switch my puppy to adult food?

Keep in mind…

Adult dog food can contain excessive amounts of calcium… which can make it unsafe for a puppy that’s still growing.

So… it’s important NOT to switch your puppy to adult food too soon.

With that in mind…

The best time to switch your puppy to adult food depends on her breed type.

The table below can help you determine when it’s safe to switch your large breed puppy to adult dog food.8 9

Breed TypeAdult WeightSwitch to Adult
Large breed50 – 100 lbs12 – 18 months
Giant breedOver 100 lbs18 – 24 months

If you’re not sure…

It’s always safer to keep your dog on puppy food too long… rather than switching to adult food too soon.


How do I know if my puppy is a large breed?

The pet food industry10 defines a large breed puppy as one whose adult weight is expected to be over 70 pounds… when she reaches maturity.

However…

Since it’s impossible to know your puppy’s adult weight before she’s fully grown

We believe it’s safer to use a more conservative 50 pound definition for large breed dogs advocated by others.11 12 13 14 15

So…

If you expect your dog to weigh 50 pounds or more when she’s fully grown… be sure to feed her a food designed to be safe for large breed puppies.


Is it OK to let my puppy eat whenever she wants?

‘Free choice’ is a popular feeding method whereby the food remains in the bowl all day long… so a puppy can eatwhenever she wants.

Sadly, many owners of large breed puppies mistakenly believe that this form of uncontrolled eating is the correct way to feed their pets.

But free choice feeding has been shown to cause a puppy to grow too fast… and lead to lasting bone damage.

A 1995 German study of Great Danes demonstrated a significant increase in the risk of developing skeletal disease when the puppies were fed free choice.16

In another study, one group of Labrador Retriever puppies was fed throughout life a restricted calorie diet… while a second was fed free choice.17

The restricted calorie group experienced a much lower risk of developing hip dysplasia later in life.

So, be sure to control the amount of food and the way you feed your puppy every day.

A Final Word

The Dog Food Advisor is privately owned and is not affiliated (in any way) with pet food manufacturers. We do not accept money, gifts, samples or other incentives in exchange for special consideration in preparing our reviews.

However, we do receive a referral fee from online retailers (like Chewy or Amazon) when readers click over to their website from ours. This policy helps support the operation of our blog and keeps access to all our content free to the public.

For more information, please visit our Disclaimer and Disclosure page.

Important FDA Alert

The FDA is investigating a potential link between diet and heart disease in dogs. Click here for details.

References

  1. Lauten SD, Nutritional Risks to Large Breed Dogs: From Weaning to the Geriatric Years, Vet Clin Small Anim 36 (2006) 1345–1359.
  2. Hazewinkel HAW. Nutrition in relation to skeletal growth deformities. J Sm Anim Practice. 1989; 30:525-630
  3. Lauten SD, Nutritional Risks to Large Breed Dogs: From Weaning to the Geriatric Years, Vet Clin Small Anim 36 (2006) 1348.
  4. Hedhammar A, Canine hip dysplasia as influenced by genetic and environmental factors, EJCAP, Oct 2007, 17:2 (pp 141-143)
  5. Kealy RD et al, Effects of limited food consumption on the incidence of hip dysplasia in growing dogs, JAVMA, Sep 1992, 201:6 (pp 857-863)
  6. Richardson, Skeletal diseases of the growing dog: Nutritional influences and the role of diet, Canine Hip Dysplasia: A Symposium Held at Western Veterinary Conference, 1995
  7. Purina Puppy Feeding Chart
  8. IAMS: Is Your Puppy Ready for Adult Dog Food?
  9. Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition (1999), Canine Life Stages and Lifestyles, The Waltham Course on Dog and Cat Nutrition, p. 4
  10. Association of American Feed Control Officials
  11. Lauten SD, Nutritional Risks to Large Breed Dogs: From Weaning to the Geriatric Years, Vet Clin Small Anim 36 (2006) 1345.
  12. IAMS, “How to Transition Your Puppy to Adult Food
  13. Purina, “When to Switch from Puppy Food to Adult Dog Food
  14. Royal Canin, 56-pound definition for large breed adult dogs
  15. Yuill C, DVM, MSc, CVH, “Nutrition: General Feeding Guidelines for Dogs“, VCA Hospitals (November 2011)
  16. Zentek J, Meyer H, Dammrich K. The effect of a different energy supply for growing Great Danes on the body mass and skeletal development. Clinical picture and chemical studies of the skeleton. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 1995;42(1):69–80.
  17. Smith GK, Paster ER, Powers MY, et al. Lifelong diet restriction and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis of the hip joint in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;229(5):690–3.